Growth of electricity deficit to 7% in 2020 is inherently abnormal for Kazakhstan due to the fact that previously the annual growth was 1-2%. Today, during peak periods, deficit is formed at the level of 1000 MW, which is generated by capacities of neighboring countries at inflated (operational) tariffs. According to some authoritative experts, this circumstance was due to a number of factors, including migration of mining farms - capacity for production of digital currency, from neighboring China, where such production was banned at the legislative level.

At the same time, the Kazakhstan energy system is divided into zones. The Western zone of Kazakhstan is isolated, which meets the needs of the entire region, while the Northern zone, although redundant, is nevertheless connected to the Southern zone and covers the deficit. At the same time, the task is to strengthen connection of the Eastern zone with UES of Kazakhstan.

 

In general, structure of the Kazakhstan Unified Energy System consists of 4 components: power generating stations including renewable energy sources, high voltage power lines, electrical distribution networks and substations, consumers. At the same time, if the power generating stations are partially privately owned, then distribution function is monopolized and fully owned by the quasi-public sector - KEGOC JSC, which is part of SWF Samruk-Kazyna JSC, as well as the system provides for local large sales companies, including private ones.

As of the beginning of 2020, 155 power plants with a total installed capacity of 22,936.6 MW were operating in Kazakhstan, and the available capacity - 19,239 MW. At the same time, potential of renewable energy sources in Kazakhstan is highly estimated: wind energy - 920 billion kWh/year; solar energy - 2.5 billion kWh/year; thermal potential of geothermal waters - 4.3 GW and hydro potential - 62 billion kWh/year. However, as of the end of July 2021, 121 RES facilities were operating in Kazakhstan, including: WPP - 30 units; SPP - 47 units; HPP - 39 units; BPP –5 units, with a total installed capacity of 1897 MW, which contributed to generation of 3245.1 million kWh in 2020.

Analysis of data on electricity import and export indicates import dependence of the sector on capacities of the Russian Federation. In 2020, with the export of 1.1 billion kWh of energy, 1.2 billion kWh were imported, mainly in order to balance production and consumption of electricity (1 half of 2021 - 612.6 million kWh (export) and 668.5 million kWh (import).

Data indicates the lack of balancing capacities in RES sector, which are capable of covering the deficit at critical peak hours by deploying additional generation in the shortest possible time. These types include hydroelectric power plants.

Development of energy industry is prerogative of the state, as it has a socio-economic function to ensure life. Use of public-private partnership mechanism is now very useful, since it is a measure of state support for investment initiatives in capital-intensive and science-intensive infrastructure projects.

PPP international experience in the field of RES confirms the feasibility of such projects in countries with completely different levels of economy and development of RES.

For example, in total, 3 types of power plants with renewable energy sources were built in the Russian Federation: wind power plants in the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, a cascade of small hydroelectric power plants (SHPPs) on the Multa river in Ust-Koksinsky district of the Altai Republic, Chibit SHPP on the Chibit river in Chuya Ulagansky district of the Altai Republic, autonomous hybrid solar-diesel installation in Menza village of the Trans-Baikal Territory. Hydropower projects have been implemented in Tajikistan as well: Pamir Energy (since 2002), Sangtuda-1 (since 2009), and Sangtuda-2 (since 2011). The Pamir Energy provides clean electricity to 96% of households - about 220 thousand people, and since 2008, company has provided electricity to more than 35 thousand residents of Badakhshan province in Afghanistan along with the export of energy across the Panj river.

In PRC, PPP in the field of RES often involves creation of joint ventures with participation of public and private capital. A good example is a construction of solar power plant in Datong (Shanxi province, China). For construction of this power plant, a joint venture was established between Yingli Green Energy (30% stake) and the state-owned coal company Shuozhou Coal Power Co.

Particularly successful PPP projects have been WIDP (Waste Infrastructure Delivery Program) waste management projects in the UK and the Maldives. This UK project was completed in 2011 by the South Tyne and Wear project, which is a partnership of three UK local authorities (Gateshead, South Tyneside and Sunderland) involving 284,000 households. The recycling project included: construction and development of a plant for production of combined heat and power from waste - Energy from Waste (EFW). Project has reduced the amount of biodegradable municipal waste sent to landfills from 169,000 tons in 2009-10 to about 12,000 tons by 2020.

In the Maldives, a similar project has been launched on the Tilafushi island. A 2.7 MW waste treatment plant was built on the project island. This plant replaces 100% of the island's diesel power generation and reduces greenhouse gas emissions by 12,000 tonnes of CO2 per year.

In the United States of America, an example of implementation of public-private partnership mechanisms in the field of renewable energy is a construction of a 2 MW biogas plant in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. This station produces both electricity and thermal energy using organic waste as fuel.

To date, 37 projects related to energy have been implemented in Kazakhstan, mainly aimed at improving energy efficiency through reconstruction of thermal power plants, improving street lighting, and lighting of state-owned enterprises.

Kazakhstan's experience in supporting development of renewable energy sources involves the creation of terms to stimulate attraction of investments in RES sector, which also allows transfer of technologies in order to optimize the cost of projects and generated energy. At the same time, the approved practice for development and support of RES sector, at first glance, corresponds to basic principles and characteristics provided for by the PPP law. However, these relationships are not recognized as public-private partnerships and, as a result, no corresponding contract is concluded.

Implementation of projects of hydroelectric and bioelectric power plants could become a starting point in PPP development in RES projects, since this mechanism would contribute to attracting private capital in projects involving high capital investments, as well as the development of scientific potential, respectively.

In addition, implementation of RES projects through PPP mechanisms will ensure implementation of sustainable development goals approved by the UN General Assembly in 2015 as a “plan to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all”, in terms of ensuring availability and rational use of water resources and sanitation as well as access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all.

At the same time, the state participation in RES projects related to the use of water resources and biological waste (industrial, household, food, etc.) would increase investment attractiveness of projects through state participation and guarantee the fulfillment of obligations enshrined at the legislative level, due to capital intensity of investment projects for construction of hydroelectric power plants, as well as would ensure the regulation of waste management at the legislative level for environmental safety and preservation of biodiversity of water areas.

 

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